It is difficult to overstate the importance of diet and lifestyle on health or the challenges that long-term poor choices and behaviours can create for public health and social care systems. As populations have become older and more affluent, they tend to adopt more sedentary lifestyles and less healthy diets. This has led to predictable increases in several chronic diseases, which now impose a huge burden on health and social care systems. Preventable lifestyle-induced diseases with major dietary components, such as cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, cancer, and dementia now account for 65% of all health-care visits and 90% of deaths in the UK. About 86% of all healthcare spending in the US covers people with chronic diseases, costing over $750B/year to treat. Chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming major health issues in developing economies.