The precision.diet API and the HealthySwaps app are based around a comprehensive RACE model of food product, nutritional content and pharmacological information describing all the validated drug:drug/disease/food interactions that have the potential to cause adverse drug reactions in patients.
precision.diet’s systems pharmacology and interactions models are based on ‘definitive’ data sources, which have been integrated and semantically normalised to identify potential drug-disease-food interactions, along with their basic mechanisms of action and mappings to organs, systems and processes in the body (as far as they are known and reported).
In total, information on over 8,500 drugs (including generic drugs and prescription/trade names) and 500,000 drug-drug/disease/food interactions have been analyzed, including the drugs’ patient information labels, black box warnings and professional clinician prescription advisories. These data are used to generate the precision.diet knowledge model are based on established clinical, scientific and nutritional knowledge from at least 3 validated sources, as reviewed by clinical and diatetic experts.
Applications in Clinical and Social Care
The costs of providing clinical and social care are rising rapidly. Changing demographics are creating a growing population of older people with an increasing burden of complex multi-morbidities and polypharmaceutical treatment regimens. This is putting pressure on both clinical and social care providers to be more efficient whilst also treating patients in a more personalized manner, to ensure that they manage their health and chronic diseases better, suffer fewer costly acute disease/side-effect episodes and ultimately recover as quickly and fully as their age and health circumstances allow.
Proper nutrition and hydration has a massive impact on a patient’s well-being, recovery rate and outcomes, particularly amongst sick and elderly patients. Malnourishment (where a deficiency of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals causes measurable adverse effects on body composition, function or clinical outcome) is a problem in the community at large. Under-nutrition can have a severe effect on a patient’s health, wellbeing and general quality of life. Patients may become less able to fight infections, develop apathy and depression, and have impaired wound healing ability, reduced muscle strength and fatigue. Poorly nourished people have a reduced quality of life and a reduced ability to work, shop, cook and self-care. Patients with malnutrition cost health systems approximately $2,500 more per patient per year, due to increased use of healthcare resources, including:
- visiting their doctor twice as often as those who are well nourished (regardless of co-morbidities)
- being 3 x more likely to be admitted to hospital
- staying an average of 3 days longer in hospital
It is estimated that improving the identification and treatment of malnutrition has the third highest potential of any measure to deliver cost savings to health providers, however both clinical and social care providers struggle to fulfil the nutritional needs and preferences within the available budgets of money/time and the skills of the front-line staff providing care to patients.